An Open Letter to the Scientific Community

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
http://www.cosmologystatement.org/

(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory.
     But the big bang theory can't survive without these fudge factors. Without the hypothetical inflation field, the big bang does not predict the smooth, isotropic cosmic background radiation that is observed, because there would be no way for parts of the universe that are now more than a few degrees away in the sky to come to the same temperature and thus emit the same amount of microwave radiation.
     Without some kind of dark matter, unlike any that we have observed on Earth despite 20 years of experiments, big-bang theory makes contradictory predictions for the density of matter in the universe. Inflation requires a density 20 times larger than that implied by big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory's explanation of the origin of the light elements. And without dark energy, the theory predicts that the universe is only about 8 billion years old, which is billions of years younger than the age of many stars in our galaxy.
     What is more, the big bang theory can boast of no quantitative predictions that have subsequently been validated by observation. The successes claimed by the theory's supporters consist of its ability to retrospectively fit observations with a steadily increasing array of adjustable parameters, just as the old Earth-centered cosmology of Ptolemy needed layer upon layer of epicycles.
     Yet the big bang is not the only framework available for understanding the history of the universe. Plasma cosmology and the steady-state model both hypothesize an evolving universe without beginning or end. These and other alternative approaches can also explain the basic phenomena of the cosmos, including the abundances of light elements, the generation of large-scale structure, the cosmic background radiation, and how the redshift of far-away galaxies increases with distance. They have even predicted new phenomena that were subsequently observed, something the big bang has failed to do.
Supporters of the big bang theory may retort that these theories do not explain every cosmological observation. But that is scarcely surprising, as their development has been severely hampered by a complete lack of funding. Indeed, such questions and alternatives cannot even now be freely discussed and examined. An open exchange of ideas is lacking in most mainstream conferences. Whereas Richard Feynman could say that "science is the culture of doubt", in cosmology today doubt and dissent are not tolerated, and young scientists learn to remain silent if they have something negative to say about the standard big bang model. Those who doubt the big bang fear that saying so will cost them their funding.
     Even observations are now interpreted through this biased filter, judged right or wrong depending on whether or not they support the big bang. So discordant data on red shifts, lithium and helium abundances, and galaxy distribution, among other topics, are ignored or ridiculed. This reflects a growing dogmatic mindset that is alien to the spirit of free scientific inquiry.
     Today, virtually all financial and experimental resources in cosmology are devoted to big bang studies. Funding comes from only a few sources, and all the peer-review committees that control them are dominated by supporters of the big bang. As a result, the dominance of the big bang within the field has become self-sustaining, irrespective of the scientific validity of the theory.
     Giving support only to projects within the big bang framework undermines a fundamental element of the scientific method -- the constant testing of theory against observation. Such a restriction makes unbiased discussion and research impossible. To redress this, we urge those agencies that fund work in cosmology to set aside a significant fraction of their funding for investigations into alternative theories and observational contradictions of the big bang. To avoid bias, the peer review committee that allocates such funds could be composed of astronomers and physicists from outside the field of cosmology.
     Allocating funding to investigations into the big bang's validity, and its alternatives, would allow the scientific process to determine our most accurate model of the history of the universe.
     If you want to sign this statement , please click here
Original Signers   |  Scientists and Engineers  |  Independent Researchers  |  Other Signers
Signed:

(Institutions for identification only)
Highlighted names are linked to related web pages

Halton Arp, Max-Planck-Institute Fur Astrophysik (Germany)Andre Koch Torres Assis, State University of Campinas (Brazil)Yuri Baryshev, Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University (Russia)Ari Brynjolfsson, Applied Radiation Industries (USA)Hermann Bondi, Churchill College, University of Cambridge (UK)Timothy Eastman, Plasmas International (USA)Chuck Gallo, Superconix, Inc.(USA)Thomas Gold, Cornell University (emeritus) (USA)Amitabha Ghosh, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)Walter J. Heikkila, University of Texas at Dallas (USA)     ................................................. 10
Michael Ibison, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin (USA)Thomas Jarboe, University of Washington (USA)Jerry W. Jensen, ATK Propulsion (USA)Menas Kafatos, George Mason University (USA)Eric J. Lerner, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (USA)Paul Marmet, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (retired) (Canada)Paola Marziani, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)Gregory Meholic, The Aerospace Corporation (USA)Jacques Moret-Bailly, Université Dijon (retired) (France)Jayant Narlikar, IUCAA(emeritus) and College de France (India, France)    ........................ 20
Marcos Cesar Danhoni Neves, State University of Maringá (Brazil)Charles D. Orth, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA)R. David Pace, Lyon College (USA)Georges Paturel, Observatoire de Lyon (France)Jean-Claude Pecker, College de France (France)Anthony L. Peratt, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA)Bill Peter, BAE Systems Advanced Technologies (USA)David Roscoe, Sheffield University (UK)Malabika Roy, George Mason University (USA)Sisir Roy, George Mason University (USA)     .................................................................... 30
Konrad Rudnicki, Jagiellonian University (Poland)Domingos S.L. Soares, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil)John L. West, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (USA)James F. Woodward, California State University, Fullerton (USA)

New signers of the Open letter since publication
Scientists and Engineers

Jorge Marao Universidade Estadual de Londrina BraziMartin John Baker, Loretto School Musselburgh, UKPeter J Carroll,  Psychonaut Institute, UKRoger Y. Gouin, Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, FranceJohn Murray, Sunyata Composite Ltd, UKJonathan Chambers, University of Sheffield, UK    ................................................................. 40
Michel  A.  Duguay, Laval University, CanadaQi Pan, Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, UKFred Rost, University of NSW (Emeritus), AustraliaLouis Hissink, Consulting Geologist, AustraliaHetu Sheth, Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, IndiaLassi Hyvärinen, IBM(Ret), FranceMax Whisson, University of Melbourne, AustraliaR.S.Griffiths, CADAS, UKAdolf Muenker, Brane Industries, USAEmre Isik    Akdeniz University    Turkey    .................................. 50
Felipe de Oliveira Alves, Federal University of Minas Gerais, BrazilJean-Marc Bonnet-Bidaud, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA, FranceKim George, Curtin University of Technology, AustraliaTom Van Flandern, Meta Research, USADoneley Watson, IBM (ret.), USAFred Alan Wolf, Have Brains / Will Travel, USARobert Wood, IEEE, CanadaD. W. Harris, L-3 Communications, USAEugene Sittampalam, Engineering consultant, Sri LankaJoseph.B. Krieger, Brooklyn College, CUNY, USA   ............................................................ 60
Pablo Vasquez, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USAPeter F. Richiuso, NASA, KSC, USARoger A. Rydin, University of Virginia (Emeritus), USAStefan Rydstrom, Royal Institute of Technology, SwedenSylvan J. Hotch, The MITRE Corporation (Retired), USAThomas R. Love, CSU Dominguez Hills, USAAndrew Coles, Embedded Systems, USAEit Gaastra, infinite universe researcher,  The NetherlandsFranco Selleri, Università di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, ItalyGerald Pease, The Aerospace Corporation, USA    .............................................................. 70
S.N. Arteha, Space Research Institute, RussiaMiroslaw Kozlowski, Warsaw University (emeritus), PolandJohn Hartnett, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, AustraliaRobert Zubrin, Pioneer Astronautics, USATibor Gasparik, SUNY at Stony Brook, USAAlexandre Losev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BulgariaHenry Hall, University of Manchester, UKJosé da Silva, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, BrazilMarkus Rohner, Griesser AG, SwitzerlandWilliam C. Mitchell, Institute for Advanced Cosmological Studies, USA    ............................. 80
Aurea Garcia-Rissmann, UFSC, BrazilCristian R. Ghezzi, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, BrazilDaniel Nicolato Epitácio Pereira, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilGregory M. Salyards, US Naval Sea Systems Command (ret.), USALuiz Carlos Barbosa, Unicamp, BrazilLuiz Carlos Jafelice,  Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte, BrazilMichael Sosteric, Athabasca University, CanadaSteven Langley Guy, University of Elizabeth (Physics Department), AustraliaRobert Fritzius, Shade Tree Physics, USAIrineu Gomes Varella, Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, Brazil    ............................................... 90
Tom Walther, Southern Cross University Australia , AustraliaMauro Cosentino, University of São Paulo, BrazilMoacir Lacerda, Univeersidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, BrazilRoberto Assumpcao, PUC Minas, BrazilRoberto Lopes Parra, University of Sao Paulo, BrazilRonaldo Junio Camppos Batista, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, BrazilErmenegildo Caccese, University of Basilicata, ItalyFelipe Sofia Zanuzzo, Federal University of São Carlos, BrazilEdival de Morais, Sociedade Brasileira de Física,  BrazilGraham Coupe, KAZ Technology Services, Australia     ....................................................... 100
Gordon Petrie, High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, USA,Jose B. Almeida, University of Minho, Portugal,Antonio Cleiton, Laboratório de Sistemas Complexos - UFPI, BrazilSergey Karpov, L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics  Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaWagner Patrick Junqueira de Souza Coelho Nicácio, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, BrazilSokolov Vladimir, Special Astrophysical Observatory  of  RAS, RussiaEdwin G. Schasteen, TAP-TEN Research Foundation International, USAGerry Zeitlin, openseti.org, USAHenry H. Bauer, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, USAYasha Fard,H.R. Cosmology Institute, Canada     .................................................................. 110
Roberto Caimmi, Astronomy Department, Padua University, ItalyTobias Keller, ETH (SFIT) Zurich, Earth Sciences,   Switzerland,Deborah Foch, Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, USA,Henry Reynolds, UC Santa Cruz, USA,Paramahamsa Tewari, Nuclear Power Corporation (ret.),IndiaJouko Seppänen, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland,Cristiane Ribeiro Bernardes, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil Eric Blievernicht. TRW,  USADr. Robert Bennett, Kolbe Center, USA, Hilton Ratcliffe, Astronomical Society of South Africa, South Africa   ....................................... 120
Wieslaw  Sztumski, Silesian University, Poland Lars Wåhlin,Colutron Research Corporation,USARiccardo Scarpa, European Southern Observatory, Italy,Olivier Marco, European Southern Observatory,   FranceJoseph Garcia, International Radiation Protection, Germany,Arkadiusz Jadczyk, International Institute of Mathematical Physics, LithuaniaJean de Pontcharra, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, FranceGerardus D. Bouw, Baldwin-Wallace College,  USAJosef Lutz, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany,Harold E. Puthoff, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, USA.   .......................................... 130
Hermann Dürkop, Nabla Systemberatung,  Germany,Klaus Fischer, Universität Trier, Germany,Werner Holzmüller, University Leipzig, GermanySol Aisenberg, International Technology Group, USARichard Gancarczyk, University of Nottingham, UKSteve Humphry, Murdoch University, AustraliaAlberto Bolognesi, Università di Perugia, ItalyDaniele Carosati, Armenzano Observatory, ItalyBrendan Dean, H.R. Cosmology Institute, CanadaW. Jim Jastrzebski, Warsaw University, Poland   .................................................. 140
Gero Rupprecht, European Southern Observatory, GermanyRainer Herrmann    TEWS-Elektronik    Germany         Felix Pharand    University of Montreal Canada Jerry Bergman    Northwest State University     USA        Tibor Gasparik    SUNY at Stony Brook  USA         Rei Gunn    University of Nantucket     USA Sinan Alis    Eyuboglu Twin Observatories    TurkeyEsat Rennan Pekünlü    University of EGE Turkey         Anne M. Hofmeister     Washington U.  USAQuentin Foreman  IEEE  New Zealand   .................................................................... 150
Marc Berndl  University of Toronto  CanadaY. P. Varshni  University of Ottawa   CanadaRobert Martinek  McMaster University  CanadaBob Criss  Washington University  USASol Aisenberg, International Technology Group, USAPaul LaViolette, The Starburst Foundation, U.S.A.Seetesh Pandé, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon FranceTAHIR MAQSOOD, PSA, PAKISTANHartmut Traunmüller, University of Stockholm, Sweden    ..................................................... 160
Nico F. Benschop, Amspade Research, NetherlandsAaron Blake, USAF, USA     M. Ross Fergus, University of Memphis, USASonu Bhaskar, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India Frederico V. F., Lima Universidade de Sao Paulo, BrazilAndrei Kirilyuk,  Institute of Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, UkraineChristian Jooss, Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, GermanySonu Bhaskar, BCISR, IndiaRobert O. Myers, ROM Technologies, USAAna Cristina Oliveira, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil   ..................................... 170
John Wey, Idaho National Laboratory, USAJorge Francisco Maldonado Serrano, UIS, ColombiaPasquale Galianni, Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Lecce, ItalyMartín López-Corredoira, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, SpainMichael A. Ivanov, Belarus State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, BelarusXiao Jianhua , Shanghai Jiaotong University, China Pierre J. Beaujon, Hoornbeeck College, The Netherlands J.Georg von Brzeski Helios Labs. USA vidyardhi nanduri , Cosmology Research center , India  Mike Rotch NBSA USA   ....................................................... 180
B.Aswin Kumar , Indian Institute of Technology , India Swee Eng, AW Royal College of Pathologists, SINGAPORE Ricardo Rodríguez , La Laguna University , Spain Linda Camp Harvard University USA James B. Schwartz , The Noah's Ark Research Foundation , Philippines Marshall Douglas Smith , TeddySpeaks Foundation ,USA Abbé Grumel , Association Copernic , France Ives van Leth Waterboard Utrecht The Netherlands Francis Michael C. Perez, Department of Transportation, USAAHMED A. EL-DASH UNICAMP BRAZIL    ................................................... 190
David C Ware, University of Auckland, New ZealandAlek Atevik, Skopje Astronomy Society, Macedonia Peter Rowlands, University of Liverpool, UK Robert Day, Suntola Consulting, Ltd., USA Luís Paulo Sousa Loureiro, PortugalMaingot Fabrice, Université Louis Pasteur, FranceKris Krogh, University of California, USAPierre-Marie Robitaille, The Ohio State University, United StatesCharles Creager Jr, Creation Research Society, United StatesStephan Gift, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago ... 200
Joseph J. Smulsky, Institute of Earth's Cryosphere Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia Jorge Marao Universidade Estadual de Londrina Brazil Jim O'Reilly Orion Consultants USA Robert MacKay University of Warwick UK     Chris Vermeulen Astronomical Society of Southern Africa South Africa Emilson Pereira Leite Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Brazil Allen W Green ATK Space Systems USA Ron Balsys Central Queensland University Australia Paul ten Boom University of New South Wales Australia Mosheh Thezion The Empirical Church, USA    
Markus, Karsten,, Wilhelm-Foerster-Observatory Berlin e.V  ............................... 211

Independent Researchers
Garth A Barber, independent researcher, UKAlberto Bolognesi, Independent Researcher, ItalyDEAN  L  MAMAS, Independent Researcher,  USADavid Blackford, Independent_Researcher, UKAlan Rees, Independent Researcher, SwedenUdayan Chakravarty, Independent Researcher,  IndiaGeorg Gane, Independent Researcher, GermanyRobin Whittle, Independent Researcher,  Australi, Joseph A. Rybczyk, Independent Researcher, USAG.Srinivasan, Independent_Researcher, India,  ........................................................ 10
Geoffrey E. Willcher independent researcher USA Douglas S. Robbemond independent researcher the Netherlands khosrow fariborzi independent researcher Iran Etienne Bielen independent researcher Belgium Steve Newman independent researcher USA Ethan Skyler, Independent researcher, USA  Yvon Dufour, Independent Researcher, Canada Jorge Ales Corona    Independent Researcher    Spain Cristiano De Angelis, Independent Researcher, ItalyRoland Le Houillier, Independent Researcher, Canada ................................................ 20
Richard Tobey  Independent researcher  USASteve McMahon  Independent researcher  USA     Eugene Savov, Independent researcher, BulgariaLars Woldseth, Independent researcher, NorwayRobert L. Brueck, Independent researcher, USAMark S Thornhill, Independent Researcher, United KingdomNainan. K. Varghese, Independent Researcher,  India,Andrew Kulikovsky, Independent Researcher, AustraliaCharles Sven, Independent Researcher, USAGabriele Manzotti, Independent Researcher, Italy.................. 30
Brian S. Clark independent researcher USA Jim O'Reilly Orion Consultants USA Geoffrey E. Willcher independent researcher USA Douglas S. Robbemond independent researcher the Netherlands khosrow fariborzi independent researcher Iran Etienne Bielen independent researcher Belgium Steve Newman independent researcher USA Thomas G. Franzel independent researcher USA Bernhard Reddemann independent researcher Germany Ives van Leth Waterboard Utrecht The Netherlands    ............................................... 40
Jeroen van der Rijst independent researcher The Netherlands Harry Costas independent researcher Australia Andrei Wasylyk independent researcher Canada Jack Ruijs independent researcher The Netherlands Leo Sarasúa independent researcher The Netherlands Edward Smith independent researcher USA Linda Camp Harvard University USA Gary Meade independent researcher USA Stan Kabacinski independent researcher Australia Jack Dejong independent researcher USA .......................................... 50
J.Georg von Brzeski Helios Labs. USA Nigel Edwards, Independent Researcher,  AustraliaDieter Schumacher, Independent Researcher, Germany    Rudolf Kiesslinger, Independent Researcher, GermanyGerd Schulte, Independent Researcher, Germany Stuart Eves, Independent Researcher, UK James Marsen independent researcher USA Edgar Paternina independent researcher Colombia Donald E. Scott  Independent_Researcher: USAJosé M?df; Cat Casanovas, Independent researcher, Spain ............................... 60
Aaron Hill, Independent Researcher, USA,Hans-Dieter Radecke, Independent Researcher, GermanyMawell P Davis    Independent Researcher    New Zealand   Gordon E. Mackay    Independent Researcher  USADave Sagar    Independent Researcher    USA        Benjamin I. Iglesias    Independent Researcher    Spain         Alper Kozan    Independent Researcher     Turkey  Hartmut Warm, Independent Researcher, GermanyJan Mugele    Independent Researcher   GermanyAndrew Rigg    Independent Researcher   Australia   ...................................................... 70
Thomas Riedel  Independent researcher DenmarkHelen Workman  Independent researcher  CanadaMorris Anderson, Independent researcher, USAMario Cosentino, Independent researcher, FrancePaul Richard Price, Independent researcher, United StatesPhilip Lilien, Independent Researcher, USAOtt Köstner, Independent researcher, EstoniaBozidar Kornic, Independent researcher, USAWilliam F. Hamilton, Independent researcher, U.S.A.Joel Morrison, Independent researcher, USA    ....................................... 80
James R. Frass, Independent Researcher, CanadaArnold Wittkamp, Independent Researcher, NetherlandsDimi Chakalov, Independent Researcher, BulgariaHerb Doughty, Independent Researcher,  USA Robert F. Beck, Independent Researcher, UKTuomo Suntola, Independent Researcher, FinlandRichard Hillgrove, Independent Researcher, New Zealand Herbert J. Spencer,  Independent Researcher,  CanadaThomas B. Andrews, Independent Researcher, USA John Dean , Independent Researcher , South Africa     ........................................................ 90
Peter Loster , Independent Researcher , GermanyCharles Francis, Independent Researcher , UK Ahmed Mowaffaq AlANNI , Independent Researcher , Iraq Mogens Wegener , Independent Researcher , DENMARK Peter Jakubowski, Independent Researcher , Germany John Brodix Merryman Jr. , Independent Researcher , USA Christian Boland , Independent Researcher , Belgium Warren S. Taylor, Independent Researcher, USAConstantin Leshan, Independent Researcher , Moldova Avid Samwaru, Independent Researcher, USA    ...................................................... 100
Thomas Goodey, Independent Researcher, UKJohan Masreliez, Independent Researcher, USA Efrèn Cañedo, Independent Researcher , MèxicoMichael Bliznetsov, Independent Researcher, RussiaPeter Michalicka, Independent Researcher, AustriaIvan D. Alexander , Independent Researcher, S. Ray DeRusse, Independent Researcher, USAChris Maharaj, Independent Researcher, TrinidadPeter Warlow, Independent Researcher, United KingdomGordon Wheeler, Independent Researcher, United States     .................................................. 110
Boxer Ma, Independent Researcher, ThailandRobert Wido, Independent Researcher, United StatesJohn Hunter independent researcher U.KMarcelo de Almeida Bueno independent researcher BrazilJean-Pierre Ady Fenyo, Independent Researcher, United StatusAdam W.L. Chan , Independent Researcher , Hong Kong Renato Giussani independent researcher ItalyBrian S. Clark independent researcher USA Mustafa Kemal Oyman, Independent Researcher, TurkeyRichard Wayte, independent researcher, UK    ....................................................... 120
Ron Ragusa independent researcher USA  N.Vivian Pope independent researcher UK Roy Caswell independent researcher United Kingdom Erin S. Myers independent researcher USA Ugo Nwaozuzu independent researcher Singapore Daniel Coman independent researcher USA Birgid Mueller independent researcher Mexico Mihail Gonta independent researcher Moldova Vladimir Rogozhin independent researcher Russia J. J. Weissmuller independent researcher USA ......................................................... 130
Muhammed Anwar independent researcher India Geldtmeijer Djamidin independent researcher Netherlands Scott G. Beach independent researcher Canada Neil Hargreaves independent researcher UK julian braggins independent researcher Australia Kari Saarikoski, Independent_Researcher, FinlandMarcelo de Almeida Bueno independent researcher Brazil Ron Ragusa independent researcher USA Brian S. Clark independent researcher USA Geoffrey E. Willcher independent researcher USA     .................................................. 140
Douglas S. Robbemond independent researcher the Netherlands khosrow fariborzi independent researcher Iran Etienne Bielen independent researcher Belgium Steve Newman independent researcher USA John Hunter independent researcher U.K Jeroen van der Rijst independent researcher The Netherlands Thomas G. Franzel independent researcher USA Bernhard Reddemann independent researcher Germany Leo Sarasúa independent researcher The Netherlands Edward Smith independent researcher USA     .......................................................... 150
Gary Meade independent researcher USA Stan Kabacinski independent researcher Australia Jack Dejong independent researcher USA Harry Costas independent researcher Australia Andrei Wasylyk independent researcher Canada Jack Ruijs independent researcher The Netherlands James Marsen independent researcher USA Edgar Paternina independent researcher Colombia Ghertza Roman, Independent_Researcher, RomaniaRoland Schubert, Independent_Researcher,   Germany   ..................................... 160
Alexandre Wajnberg, Independent Researcher, Skyne, BelgiumDennis H Cowdrick Scientific   Independent_Researcher:   USA Michail Telegin  Independent_Researcher: Russia Robert L Stafford,  Independent_Researcher,   USA      ......................................... 164

Other Signers

Charles Weber,USADavid Gershon ,USAPeter G Smith ,USARichard J. Lawrence ,USANaszvadi László, HungaryRoger W. Browne, USABart Clauwens, NetherlandsNoah Feiler-Poethke, USAJonathan Hardy,  UKJohn S. Kundrat, USA                       ........................................................................... 10
Vincent Sauve, USA Chris Somers,  AustraliaJagroop Sahota, USAEdgar Raab, GermanyGordon Hogenson, USABurebista Dacia, RomaniaChristel Hahn, GermanyBurebista Dacia, RomaniaChristel Hahn, GermanyRobert Angstrom, USA        .............................................................................. 20
Norman Chadwick, USAHarley Orr, USAClive Martin-Ross, UKAlasdair Martin, UKMarcus Ellspermann, GermanyBruce Richardson, USAJohn Dill, USA Judith Woollard    Australia        Michael Cyrek        USA Randall Meyers    ITALY   ............................................................................................... 30
Craig Arend        USA         Onur Cantimur    Turkey    Roland Scheel  FranceMurat Isik  TurkeyMarkus Hellebrandt  GermanyMehmet Kara  TurkeyAbhishek Dey Das  IndiaD. N. Vazquez  USASuzan R. Rodenburg  USAShuming Zhang  China    ................................................................................................. 40
Codie Vickers  USARichard Tobey  USA   Elfriede Steiner-Grillmair, CanadaGabriele Manzotti, ItalyMichael Wember, USAFuksz Levente, RomaniaSeppo Tuominen, FinlandMarvin C. Katz, USALaura Fridley, USAMichael Christian, U.S.A    ........................................................................................... 50
Edgar S. Hill USAQ. John T. Malone USAMichael Bruttel  SwitzerlandEric W. LaFlamme USA  Robert Diegis, RomaniaWilliam S. Jarnagin, USAKevin Glaser, USA Robert Diegis, RomaniaWilliam S. Jarnagin, USAKevin Glaser, USA    ................................................................................................ 60
JoAnn Arcuri USA Attila Csanyi USA Pratik Sinha India Donald C. Bull New Zealand Hans Walhout Netherlands Robyn Stewart AustraliaTor Johannessen Norway Rick Schmidt USA Terence Watts UK Jody Fulford USA     ............................................................................................ 70
Gene Gordon USA Monica Veloso Alves Brazil Ferdi Prins South Africa Adam Hansil USAHerbert M Watson USA John Patchett UK Jurrie Noordijk, The NetherlandsP.S. Phillips, U.S.AJoAnn Arcuri USA Martin Gradwell , ns, United Kingdom 80
Sami Murtomäki, Ns, FinlandAnthony Abruzzo , United StatesTim Reed, ns, USA Daniel Rijo , ns, USAKen Couesbouc , ns, France